Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408


Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990

  • M.A., University of Washington 1986

  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, Michael. “Prison Time.” Yale French Studies, vol. 91, 1997, pp. 64–79.

Hardt, M., and A. Negri. “Postmodern Law and the withering of civil society.” Angelaki  Journal of the Theoretical Humanities, vol. 1, no. 3, Dec. 1996, pp. 57–72. Scopus, doi:10.1080/09697259608571897. Full Text

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “Le lotte non nascono dalla teoria.” Deriveapprodi, vol. 9/10, Feb. 1996, pp. 42–43.

Hardt, M. “The Withering of Civil Society.” Social Text, vol. 45, 1995.

Hardt, M. “L’hibridité de l’Empire.” Futur Antérieur, vol. 27, 1995.

Hardt, M. “La constitución de la ontología: Negri entre los filósofos.” Anthropos, vol. 144, 1993, pp. 40–44.

Hardt, M. “Los Angeles Novos.” Futur Antérieur, vol. 12/13, 1992, pp. 12–26.

Hardt, M. “La violence de la fraternité: hommage à Malcolm X.” Futur Antérieur, vol. 7, 1991, pp. 20–22.

Hardt, M. “L’art de l’organisation: agencements ontologiques et agencements politiques chez Spinoza.” Futur Antérieur, vol. 7, 1991, pp. 118–43.

Hardt, M. “Review.” Rethinking Marxism, vol. 3, no. 2, Jan. 1990, pp. 173–81. Scopus, doi:10.1080/08935699008657920. Full Text


Negri, A., et al. “Subterranean Passages of Thought: Empire’s Inserts.” Cultural Studies, vol. 16, no. 2, Taylor & Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles, 2002, pp. 193–212.

Bliwise, R. “Empire: Not So Evil.” Duke Magazine, Nov. 2001, pp. 43–47.

Engelson, A. “Sovereignty, Multitudes, Absolute Democracy.” Washington Law and Politics, Oct. 2001, pp. 22–23.

Hardt, M., and Antonio Negri. “What the Protestors in Genoa Want.” The New York Times, 20 July 2001, pp. A23–A23.

Dumm, T. “Sovereignty, Multitudes, Absolute Democracy.” Theory and Event: An Online Journal of Political Theory, vol. 43, no. 3, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Hardt, M. “La nuda vita sotto l’Impero.” Il Manifesto Newspaper, 1999.

Hardt, M. “Le lotte non nascono dalla teoria.” Deriveapprodi, vol. 9/10, Feb. 1996, pp. 42–43.

Kinsman, G. “From the Perspective of Resistance.” Upping the Anti, vol. 5, pp. 73–85.