Michael Hardt

Michael Hardt

Professor of Literature

External address: 
106 Friedl Building, Buchanan and Trinity, Durham, NC 27708-0670
Internal office address: 
Box 90670, Durham, NC 27708-0670
(919) 684-3408


Michael Hardt's writings explore the new forms of domination in the contemporary world as well as the social movements and other forces of liberation that resist them. In the Empire trilogy -- Empire (2000), Multitude (2004), and Commonwealth(2009) -- he and Antonio Negri investigate the political, legal, economic, and social aspects of globalization. They also study the political and economic alternatives that could lead to a more democratic world. Their pamphlet Declaration (2012) attempts to articulate the significance of the encampments and occupations that began in 2011, from Tahrir Square to Zuccotti Park, and to recognize the primary challenges faced by emerging democratic social movements today.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., University of Washington 1990

  • M.A., University of Washington 1986

  • B.S., Swarthmore College 1983

Hardt, M., et al. “The Collaborator and the Multitude.” Minnesota Review, no. 61–62, 2004, pp. 63–77.

Hardt, M. “Toward a foreigner's science? September 2003 - Interview with Brian Holmes and Jon Solomon.” Multitudes, vol. 14, no. 4, Dec. 2003, pp. 73–79. Scopus, doi:10.3917/mult.014.0073. Full Text

Hardt, M., et al. “Travallar por unha domocracia mundial e a unica resposta.” Grial: Revista Galega De Cultura, no. 158, Apr. 2003, pp. 50–59.

Hardt, M. “The 18th Brumaire of George W. Bush.” Global Magazine, vol. 1, Mar. 2003.

Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. “The Rod of the Forest Warden: A Response to Timothy Brennan.” Critical Inquiry, vol. 29, no. 2, Jan. 2003, pp. 368–73. Manual, doi:10.1086/374031. Full Text

Hardt, M., and Ivan Maffezzini. “Après Empire.” Conjunctures, no. 36/37, 2003, pp. 15–30.

Hardt, M., et al. “Interview.” Historical Materialism, vol. 11, no. 3, 2003, pp. 121–52.

Barchiesi, F., et al. “Porto Alegre: The work of multitudes.” Multitudes, vol. 8, no. 1, Dec. 2002, pp. 5–14.

Hardt, M., et al. “Challenging Empire.” Radical Society, vol. 29, no. 4, Dec. 2002, pp. 59–73.

Hardt, M. “Il tramonto del mondo contadino nell’Impero.” Posse, Manifestolibri, May 2002, pp. 189–211.


Hardt, M. “A Tribute to Hannah Arendt.” Tikkun Magazine, 2006, pp. 83–83.

Tsuda, K. “Welcoming the Multitude.” The Brown Journal of World Affairs, vol. 13, no. 1, 2006, pp. 11–18.

Kemmerer, A. “Starker Tobak.” Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 18 Nov. 2004.

Senne de Moraes, M. “A Rede Concreta.” Folha De S. Paulo, 1 Aug. 2004, pp. 7–8.

Dangl, B. “Interview.” Dissident Voice, 20 Apr. 2004.

Hardt, M., and Clement Behrendt Kjersgaard. “In Fact I Want All of Us to Be Rich.” Nyhedsmagasinet Ræson, 18 Feb. 2004.

Smith, C., and E. Minardi. “The Collaborator and the Multitude.” The Minnesota Review, vol. 61 & 62, Duke University Press, 2004, pp. 63–77.

Hardt, M., and Truls Lie. “Fra arbeid til samarbeid.” Le Monde Diplomatique (Scandinavian Edition), Dec. 2003, pp. 3–5.

Moreiras, A., and A. Leyte. “Travallar por unha domocracia mundial e a unica resposta.” Grial: Revista Galega De Cultura, vol. 158, Apr. 2003, pp. 50–59.

Hardt, M. “Anti-Europeanism and Anti-Americanism.” The Guardian, Feb. 2003.